The Powderpuff is not affected by many of the congenital diseases found in other toy breeds. They are, however, prone to some of these conditions listed. Eye problems such as lens luxation, glaucoma, and PRA (Progressive Retinal Atrophy), luxating patellas, and Legg-Pethes disease. The Powderpuff should have full dentition, not missing or crooked teeth, as is accepted in their sibling the Hairless variety.
Cresteds have what is called a "primitive mouth." This means that most of their teeth are pointy, like their canines. Hairless varieties of the Cresteds can be prone to poor dentition. Poor dentition may include missing or crowded teeth and teeth prone to decay when not properly cared for. Most dogs of the Puff variety have few, if any, dental defects.
Eyes are a concern within the breed, with many suffering from a painful and blinding inherited eye disease called Primary Lens Luxation. (PLL) The Chinese Crested can also have at least two forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) which can eventually lead to blindness as well. For PLL and also one of the forms of PRA, there exists a genetic test, to determine if a dog is a "carrier, clear, or affected." prcd-PRA. Since the test for prcd-PRA can only reveal the existence of affected or carrier status of this one form of PRA, breeders and owners of the breed should still have regular eye exams by veterinary ophthalmologists. The breed also suffers from another eye disease called Keratoconjunctivitis sicca or dry eye syndrome (DES).
Along with Kerry Blue Terriers, Cresteds can develop canine multiple system degeneration (CMSD) also called progressive neuronal abiotrophy (PNA) in Kerry Blue Terriers. This is a progressive movement disorder that begins with cerebellar ataxia between 10 and 14 weeks of age. After 6 months of age, affected dogs develop difficulty initiating movements and fall frequently. The gene responsible has been mapped to canine chromosome 1.
As with all other toy breeds, the Cresteds can be prone to patellar luxation. This inheritable condition is caused by shallow knee joints (stifles) and results in kneecaps that pop out of place. Its onset is often at a young age, and can cause temporary to permanent lameness based on the severity. Breeders should have their stock certified free of patellar luxation. Many countries' kennel clubs maintain a centralised registry for health results.
Allergy and autoimmune diseases have been observed in the breed. The severity of these ailments, which can lead to the premature death of the dog, means this is something breeders need to take seriously in order to avoid it becoming a problem for the breed.